There are outstanding evolutionary questions on the recent emergence of human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 including the role of reservoir species, the role of recombination and its time of divergence from animal viruses. SARS-CoV-2 itself is not a recombinant of any sarbecoviruses detected to date, and its receptor-binding motif, important for specificity to human ACE2 receptors, appears to be an ancestral trait shared with bat viruses and not one acquired recently via recombination.
To employ phylogenetic dating methods, recombinant regions of a genome sarbecovirus alignment were removed with three independent methods. Bayesian evolutionary rate and divergence date estimates were shown to be consistent for these three approaches and for two different prior specifications of evolutionary rates based on HCoV-OC43 and MERS-CoV. In outbreaks of zoonotic pathogens, identification of the infection source is crucial because this may allow health authorities to separate human populations from the wildlife or domestic animal reservoirs posing the zoonotic risk 9 If stopping an outbreak in its early stages is not possible—as was the case for the COVID epidemic in Hubei—identification of origins and point sources is nevertheless important for containment purposes in other provinces and prevention of future outbreaks.
Across a large region of the virus genome, corresponding approximately to ORF1b, it did not cluster with any of the known bat coronaviruses indicating that recombination probably played a role in the evolutionary history of these viruses 57.
Zhou et al. Concurrent evidence also proposed pangolins as a potential intermediate species for SARS-CoV-2 emergence and suggested them as a potential reservoir species 1112 Unlike other viruses that have emerged in the past two decades, coronaviruses are highly recombinogenic 1415 For coronaviruses, however, recombination means that small genomic subregions can have independent origins, identifiable if sufficient sampling has been done in the animal reservoirs that support the endemic circulation, co-infection and recombination that appear to be common.
We demonstrate that the sarbecoviruses circulating in horseshoe bats have complex recombination histories as reported by others 15202122232425 Our results indicate the presence of a single lineage circulating in bats with properties that allowed it to infect human cells, as previously described for bat sarbecoviruses related to the first SARS-CoV lineage 2930 We use three bioinformatic approaches to remove the effects of recombination, and we combine these approaches to identify putative non-recombinant regions that can be used for reliable phylogenetic reconstruction and dating.
While it is possible that pangolins, or another hitherto undiscovered species, may have acted as an intermediate host facilitating transmission to humans, current evidence is consistent with the virus having evolved in bats resulting in bat sarbecoviruses that can replicate in the upper respiratory tract of both humans and pangolins 25 This is evidence for numerous recombination events occurring in the evolutionary history of the sarbecoviruses 2233 ; specifying all past events in their correct temporal order 34 is challenging and not shown here.
The histogram allows for the identification of non-recombining regions NRRs by revealing regions with no breakpoints. All four of these breakpoints were also identified with the tree-based recombination detection method GARD Note that breakpoints can be shared between sequences if they are descendants of the same recombination events. Nucleotide positions for phylogenetic inference are —, —1, first tree3,—9, second tree, also BFR B9,—11, third tree, also BFR C12,—19, fourth tree and 23,—24, 24,—25, 27,—28, and 29,—30, fifth tree.
Relevant bootstrap values are shown on branches, and grey-shaded regions show sequences exhibiting phylogenetic incongruence along the genome. China corresponds to Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangdong provinces. China clade also includes one sequence sampled in Hubei Province in The extent of sarbecovirus recombination history can be illustrated by five phylogenetic trees inferred from BFRs or concatenated adjacent BFRs Fig. BFRs were concatenated if no phylogenetic incongruence signal could be identified between them.
China clade is phylogenetically separated from the S. China clade. Despite the high frequency of recombination among bat viruses, the block-like nature of the recombination patterns across the genome permits retrieval of a clean subalignment for phylogenetic analysis.
Using a third consensus-based approach for identifying recombinant regions in individual sequences—with six different recombination detection methods in RDP5 ref. However, on closer inspection, the relative divergences in the phylogenetic tree Fig. These residues are also in the Pangolin Guangdong sequence. This provides compelling support for the SARS-CoV-2 lineage being the consequence of a direct or nearly-direct zoonotic jump from bats, because the key ACE2-binding residues were present in viruses circulating in bats.
SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 are the most closely related their most recent common ancestor nodes denoted by green circlesexcept in the nt variable-loop region of the C-terminal domain bar graphs at bottom. The genetic distances between SARS-CoV-2 and Pangolin Guangdong are consistent across all regions except the N-terminal domain, implying that a recombination event between these two sequences in this region is unlikely.
Uncertainty measures are shown in Extended Data Fig. While pangolins could be acting as intermediate hosts for bat viruses to get into humans—they develop severe respiratory disease 38 and commonly come into contact with people through trafficking—there is no evidence that pangolin infection is a requirement for bat viruses to cross into humans. Sequences are colour-coded by province according to the map. Five example sequences with incongruent phylogenetic positions in the two trees are indicated by dashed lines.
Phylogenies of subregions of NRR1 depict an appreciable degree of spatial structuring of the bat sarbecovirus population across different regions Fig. One geographic clade includes viruses from provinces in southern China Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangdongwith its major sister clade consisting of viruses from provinces in northern China Shanxi, Henan, Hebei and Jilin as well as Hubei Province in central China and Shaanxi Province in northwestern China.A reckoning long overdue: Dana Canedy and Lisa Lucas on their new positions in publishing.
They talk to Rebecca Carroll about language, action, the power of books and the pace of change. California earthquake shakes celebrities into freaking out on Twitter. After a magnitude 4. What the Emmy-nominated miniseries gets wrong about feminism past and present. Even Quibi got in on the fun. Five key takeaways from the Emmy nominations. American Conservatory Theater says no in-person shows for 10 more months. Instagram removed a post from Madonna that featured a video of discredited physician Stella Immanuel.
She knew the struggle of artists. Los Angeles Opera postpones its fall slate for an entire year as the pandemic prompts the company to consider outdoor alternatives. Watch Drew Barrymore interview 7-year-old self for new talk show.
Women embrace challengeaccepted, but some ask: To what end? Female Instagram users across the United States are flooding the photo-sharing app with black-and-white images this week. Company Town. Tyler Perry was among the first major filmmakers to restart shooting amid the coronavirus outbreak. He followed rigorous health and safety measures at his Atlanta studio. Backstreet Boy included. The Arts. Alanis Morissette and Liz Phair talk songwriting during an apocalypse and rock-star self-care.
Liz Phair was supposed to be on tour with Alanis Morissette right now. Premiered six months after the murder of Martin Luther King Jr. Essential Arts: The next generation of monuments?
The 100 Top Christian Blogs
Ditch the bronze. How monuments are evolving, a cello disappears then mysteriously reappears, and Ai Weiwei on activism. Plus much more in our weekly arts newsletter. What histories are we not honoring?
Artists, architects and historians give their ideas for new monuments across the country. Motels are having a moment. Motels, long the orphans of the hospitality industry, stand to gain popularity as people hit the road again and seek to avoid interior spaces. Female, trans and nonbinary writers got their big break. The move comes as AMC Networks confronts challenges facing traditional TV companies that have lost viewers to streaming services in recent years.
WGA members overwhelmingly approve new film and TV contract.Submit Blog Do you want more traffic, leads, and sales? Submit your blog below if you want to grow your traffic and revenue. Submit Your Blog. Louisville, KentuckyUnited States About Blog For nearly 40 years, the Association of Certified Biblical Counselors has been certifying biblical counselors to ensure doctrinal integrity and to promote excellence in biblical counseling.
On this edition of Truth in Love Brad Bigney helps us think through the issue of sexuality in marriage, in particular when it is not going well. Lakewood, Colorado, United States About Blog Our Christian counseling blog is perfect for Christians who want to know more about individual and marriage therapy topics from our experts. About Blog The BCC exists to strengthen churches, para-church organizations, and educational institutions by promoting excellence and unity in biblical counseling as a means to accomplish compassionate outreach and effective discipleship.
Minneapolis, MN About Blog Celebrating the truth that God is most glorified in us when we are most satisfied in him, we exist to produce and distribute resources that spread a passion for the supremacy of God in all things for the joy of all peoples through Jesus Christ.
We provide counseling, training, church partnership, and great resources on a wide range of topics. Facebook fans 2. Orefield, PA About Blog I am a national and international speaker, author, licensed clinical social worker, consultant and relationship coach with an expertise on the subjects of personal and spiritual growth, marriage improvement, conflict resolution, depression, child abuse, destructive relationships and domestic violence. Glenside, PA About Blog Our counselors serve individuals, couples, and families in need at our three locations.
We provide consultation with pastors and other counselors. We mentor counselors through our internship program and supervision groups. We provide services to clients locally FL and all over the world via the Internet. To encourage, empower and work together to get the divorce rate to zero and help us all have s.
About Blog The Center for Biblical Counseling exists to help men, women, and children come to Christ for help in their times of trouble.
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Cleveland, OH About Blog Counseling One Another is built upon the biblically-based philosophy that counseling is the normal work of believers in the context of the local church. Through speaking, writing, and consulting, we empower you through Christ-centered, comprehensive, compassionate, and culturally-informed biblical counseling and spiritual formation. Vision We are committed to Christ-centred change, enabled by the Spirit, through the ministry of the Word, in the local church.
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About Blog Our mission is uniquely Christian. We have a strong conviction that the goal of therapy should include both Psychological and Spiritual wholeness, though in different proportions depending on the setting, theory of the therapists and expectations of the client.For more information call What to see and do in north beach? Providing supply one hundred percent free dating sites for his own needs. Currently, this is one of the best farmers dating websites around, and its popularity will continue to grow.
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Douglas A. Blackmon is, like myself, a son of the small-town South, with a great-great grandfather there were at least two in my case who fought for the Confederacy.
Anything he writes on the South is worth a read. It is proof stuff, deeply historically informed but also angry and personal. The fiery Southerner of legend does not fall only on one side of this debate.
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Barnett Rubin, long a leading advocate of talks with the Taliban, has a great piece in The New Yorker about the struggles to make lasting improvements in Afghanistan. This short video shows how the roots of the euro common currency lie in the destruction of World War II; how joining in is like sharing a credit card that belongs to Germany; and how one nation can control the fate of a continent.
International monetary economics has never looked so fun. The text and images here are taken from an unusual interactive art installation that pairs statistics and stories with dioramas that use Barbie dolls clad in prison-orange.
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Please let others know with the sharing buttons above. To make this list of top Christian blogs, I gathered and inspected about Christian blogs and ranked them using a variety of factors. Some of the blogs I inspected are listed below the list of the Top Christians blogs. I will update this list occasionally, so if you want your blog to be considered for future ranking, and your blog is not listed below the list of Top Christian blogs, please include a link to your blog in the comment section.
Disclaimer: I do not necessarily endorse all the views or perspectives of the bloggers on this list. The list contains many Christian bloggers who write from theological perspectives with which I have some disagreement.
Like who? This caused all blogs from Patheos, the Gospel Coalition, and other similar blogs to be dropped from the list. The reason I did this twofold. Many of these community blogs are not accurately ranked by Alexa and SimilarWeb, which are two of the ranking factors I used see below. But more than this, I wanted this list to honor the individual blogger who started his or her blog from scratch, and has labored away at it for years, slowly building an audience and faithfully writing quality posts which get read and shared.
Those huge mega community blogs often overshadow the quality writing and hard work of individual bloggers. So if a blogger was writing on a community blog, I kept them off my list. Finally, once I had my list of individual bloggers, I ranked them using a variety of factors.
These factors include:. The ranking number in the list below is a compilation of these ranking signals. The lower the number, the better the blog ranks. Get FREE articles and audio teachings every week in my discipleship emails! Your email address will not be published.
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I sat in a workshop you taught back in Dallas about 6 or 7 years ago. It was eye opening about blogging and writing. Because of my limited finance, I am using WordPress.
I came here, for a couple of reasons. Your Top Christian blogger list is a good place to learn. Yet, I can certainly use some constructive feedback on my own blog. For one, I am willing to buy a theme, from WordPress. Why am I using it? The typography is very readable; especially on a mobile platform. Secondly, there is the issue of the menu system. When I started five years ago, I had no clear ideas.For the convenience of all members in the LuvFree community, we have a "Free online dating in cities" block at the bottom of our Home page which lists many of the major cities across the world.
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